Key

The following abbreviations have been used throughout the text to highlight sources of additional information. More info.

Managment
Planning

Biodiversity
Action Plan

Forest
Reproductive
Material
Regulations

References


Woodland design: creation, felling and replanting

3.3Species selection
3.3.1

Requirement

  1. Species selected for new woodlands, natural regeneration and restocking shall be suited to the site and matched to the objectives.
  2. For new woodlands, native species shall be preferred to non-native. If non-native species are used it shall be shown that they will clearly outperform native species in meeting the objectives.

Means of verification

  • Discussions with the owner/manager demonstrate that consideration has been given to a range of species, including native species, in meeting management objectives.

Guidance

Results of research into site suitability of different species origins and provenances and their resilience to climate change should be used to assist species choice. Because of the uncertain effects of climate change, selecting a range of genotypes may be prudent.

Where appropriate and possible use should be made of natural regeneration or planting stock from parental material growing in the local native seed zone (native species) or region of provenance (non-native species).

3.3.2

Requirement

The proportions of different species in new planting, or planned for the next rotation of an existing woodland, shall be as follows:

  • Where at least two species are suited to the site and matched to the objectives:
    • < 65% primary species
    • > 20% secondary species
    • > 10% open space
    • > 5% native broadleaf.
  • Where only one species is suited to the site and matched to the objectives:
    • < 75% primary species
    • > 10% open space
    • > 5% native broadleaf
    • > 10% other areas managed for biodiversity as a major objective.

The requirement in relation to open space does not apply to very small woodlands (i.e. 10 ha or under).

Means of verification

  • Management planning documentation
  • Field observation.

Guidance

Refer to section 6.2.1 which gives the requirements relating to areas managed with biodiversity as a major objective.

Additional open space and/or native shrubs can be provided instead of native broadleaved trees if they are not suited to the site.

Open space with wildlife value contiguous to the woodland can be counted towards the requirement if it is managed as part of the woodland.

Where appropriate and possible, use natural regeneration or planting stock from parental material growing in the local native seed zone (native species) or region of provenance (non-native species).

3.3.3

Requirement

Woodland areas shall be converted to areas used solely for Christmas tree production only where conversion is consistent with other requirements of this certification standard, including the need to leave open space, and in accordance with any approved FC or DARD management plan, or when clearance is required for non-forestry reasons such as a wayleave agreement. Christmas trees shall be grown using traditional, non-intensive techniques.

Means of verification

  • Field inspection
  • Management records.

Guidance

The requirement restricting conversion relates to use for growing Christmas trees of less than 4 metres in height.

The chemicals regime for Christmas trees must meet all the requirements of section 5.2.

Examples of Christmas trees which may be covered by a certificate are:

  • Trees (<4 m in height) grown on areas within the woodland matrix used solely for Christmas tree production
  • Trees (<4 m in height) grown on areas used solely for Christmas tree production which, although outwith the woodland, form part of the woodland management unit
  • Thinnings from forest tree crops
  • Tops from harvested forest tree crops
  • Trees grown by interplanting of forest tree crops
  • Mature trees (>4 m height)
  • Trees which have regenerated onto, and have been harvested from, adjacent open land in the interest of maintaining its biodiversity or landscape value, and provided that the adjacent area is managed as part of the woodland management unit.

Christmas trees grown as a horticultural or nursery crop cannot be covered by a certificate.

3.3.4

Requirement

  1. Non-native plant (non-tree) and animal species shall only be introduced if they are non-invasive and bring environmental benefits.
  2. All introductions shall be carefully monitored.

Means of verification

  • Documented impact assessment of any introductions made after the first certification
  • Discussions with the owner/manager
  • Field observation.

Guidance

The requirement includes the re-introduction of once native animals not currently present within the United Kingdom.

Use of non-native biological control agents such as Rhizophagus grandis may be desirable to control non-native pests.

Game species may be introduced if managed in accordance with section 6.4.