An authoritative body which evaluates and recognises the competence of bodies to certify that woodland management conforms to the specific requirements of the UK Woodland Assurance Standard. Accreditation Services International (ASI) and the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) both provide an accreditation service in the UK. Those bodies which are accredited are referred to as certification bodies.
The benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These include:
The following set of elements of the biophysical and human environment:
The actual worth attributed to these elements depends on human and societal perceptions.
The competent body with responsibility for the regulation of forestry in each country of the United Kingdom: Forestry Commission England, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development/Northern Ireland Forest Service, Forestry Commission Scotland and Welsh Government/Natural Resources Wales or their successor bodies.
Several thousand years of human activity has contributed to the landscape of the UK that we experience today. The surviving elements of the past take many forms, including ancient woods and forests, veteran trees, earthworks, ruined structures and features buried below ground. Together these elements provide a rich source of information about past societies and how they used and managed the land including their woods and forests.
An agreement under international law entered into by sovereign states and international organisations which may also be known as a treaty, protocol, covenant, convention, exchange of letters, etc. It provides a means for willing parties to assume obligations among themselves, and a party that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law. The Foreign & Commonwealth Office’s ‘UK Treaties Online’ database on www.fco.gov.uk lists those involving the UK.
Anyone living or working in the vicinity who has an interest in the woodland. It is intentional that this term is not more closely defined, and the wider public is not excluded. It is particularly difficult to be precise about how local people are to be contacted or consulted. In some situations, it would be appropriate for this simply to mean those living beside the woodland (e.g. concerning noise disturbance). In other cases (such as using local services), a much wider geographical area will be appropriate. If there is difficulty in identifying local contacts, then the elected representatives should be the first choice.
Woodland management units are classed as being managed in a low-intensity manner when:
a) the rate of timber harvesting is less than 20% of the mean annual increment (MAI) within the total production woodland area of the unit
b) the annual harvest from the total production woodland area is less than 5,000 cubic metres
c) the average annual timber harvest from the total production woodland is less than 5,000 m³/year during the period of validity of the certificate as verified by harvest reports and surveillance audits.
Note: where Woodland Management Unit-specific estimates of mean annual increment are unavailable or impracticable, regional estimates of growth rates for specific woodland types may be used.
A designated site containing examples of some of the most important natural and semi-natural terrestrial and coastal ecosystems, managed to conserve their habitats or to provide special opportunities for scientific study of the habitats, communities and species represented within them. In addition, they may be managed to provide public recreation that is compatible with their natural heritage interests.
A species that has arrived and inhabited an area naturally, without deliberate assistance by man, or would occur had it not been removed through past management. For trees and shrubs in the UK this is usually taken to mean those species present after post-glacial recolonisation and before historical times. Some species are only native in particular regions. Differences in characteristics and adaptation to conditions occur more locally hence the term ‘locally native’.
Natural reserves are predominantly wooded, usually mature and intended to reach biological maturity. They are permanently identified and in locations which are of particularly high wildlife interest or potential. They are managed by minimum intervention unless alternative interventions have higher conservation or biodiversity value.
Habitats identified by statutory nature conservation and countryside agencies under Section 41 (England) and Section 42 (Wales) of the Natural Environment and Rural Communities (NERC) Act 2006, Section 2(4) of the Nature Conservation (Scotland) Act 2004, and Section 3(1) of the Wildlife and Natural Environment Act (Northern Ireland) 2011.
Also see Statutory body.
Protected, rare and endangered species which are:
Also see Statutory body and IUCN Red List.
Location of trees from which seed or cuttings are collected. Designation of Regions of Provenance under the Forest Reproductive Materials regulations is used to help nurseries and growers select suitable material. The term is often confused with ‘origin’ which is the original natural genetic source.
Accessible to local people or other interested parties. For example, placing material on a website or on signage, providing electronic or hard copies of documents, or making documents available for inspection at a local office. In most cases, a charge may not be made for making material publicly available. However, where a summary of material has been made publicly available free of charge, a charge to cover costs of reproduction and handling may be made if any additional material is requested.
The baseline of surviving ancient woodland features found in PAWS, for which there is physical or documentary evidence.
These features provide the continuity of habitat with the pre-plantation phase.
The shelterwood system involves the felling of a proportion of the mature trees within an area whilst leaving some trees as a seed source and shelter for natural regeneration. The seed trees are subsequently removed. Note that the term ‘seed tree system’ is often used to describe ‘shelterwoods’ with densities of <50 retained mature trees per hectare.
There are four categories:
Predominantly tree-covered land whether in large tracts (generally called forests) or smaller units (known by a variety of terms such as woodlands, woods, copses and shelterbelts).
Those woodlands which are comprised mainly of locally native trees and shrubs, and have some structural characteristics of natural woodland are referred to as semi-natural woodland.
Those woodlands which are derived principally from the human activity of planting, sowing or intensive silvicultural treatment but lack most of the principal characteristics and key elements of semi-natural woodland are generally referred to as plantations or woodlands of planted origin. They often include a proportion of naturally regenerated trees and are often managed to become more like natural woodlands over time.
Woodland is referred to as ancient woodland when it has been in continuous existence since before AD 1600 in England, Wales and Northern Ireland or since before AD 1750 in Scotland.
The term ancient semi-natural woodland (ASNW) is used to describe those semi-natural stands on ancient woodland sites. The precise definition varies according to the local circumstances in each country within the United Kingdom and guidance should be sought from the relevant forestry authority.
The term ancient woodland site refers to the site of an ancient woodland irrespective of its current tree cover. Where the native tree cover has been felled and replaced by planting of tree species not native to the site it is referred to as a plantation on ancient woodland site (PAWS).
All employed persons including public employees as well as self-employed persons and volunteers. This includes part-time and seasonal employees, of all ranks and categories, including labourers, administrators, supervisors, executives, contractor employees, self-employed contractors and sub-contractors and other licensed operators.